Staving off dementia: 5 ways to keep your brain young and healthy

Written by admin on 27/07/2019 Categories: 苏州美甲纹绣培训

Your brain may change with age but don’t think mental decline has to seep in as you get older. New research suggests there are plenty of ways to keep your brain sharp and alert.


“The evidence is getting stronger that there are things we can do to potentially lower our risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or another form of dementia. Previously, before this evidence came to light, people…said it’s luck of the draw if they’ll get this disease and there was a real sense of helplessness and lack and control,” Mary Schulz, director of education at the Alzheimer Society of Canada, said.

“There are no guarantees that if you follow these [lifestyle habits] to a letter that you won’t develop a form of dementia but we’re learning that they have some protective measures,” she told Global News.

READ MORE: What are the early warning signs and symptoms of dementia?

These habits are also helpful for people already living with dementia in staving off the deterioration of their brain health, Schulz said.

For National Brain Awareness Month, Schulz named five lifestyle changes you can make now to improve your brain’s health and fight off illness:

Challenge yourself

Learn a new language, take up chess or even take piano lessons. Stimulating your brain helps to reinvigorate it, Schulz said.

“It’s something new and it wakes up your brain, giving it a jolt and startling it. You’re also teaching it to adapt, and be flexible as you have messages fired around in your brain in a way it doesn’t normally,” she explained.

Research backs up Schulz’ claim, too: Speaking a second language could delay the onset of three types of dementias — vascular, frontotemporal and mixed dementia, according to one study. It found that people who were bilingual developed dementia 4.5 years later than people who could only speaking one language.

READ MORE: Why docs say these mood changes are a warning sign for Alzheimer’s

Make sure you choose a hobby that you’re interested in when setting a challenge. If you hate Sudoku, don’t commit to completing one every day.

Be socially active

Engaging with your family, friends and community is key to keeping your brain happy. This could be through conversations with your grandkids, joining a local book club or even going to the movies with your friends, Schulz said.

One study suggested that leisurely activities that rolled physical, mental and social stimulation together helped the most to prevent dementia.

“There is new evidence that suggests as we are exposed to new ideas and conversations, different pathways in our brain are created and that’s neurons talking to each other, which we want,” Schulz said.

READ MORE: Inside the world of dementia, as a painful reality sets in

Maintaining relationships is especially crucial in keeping your mental health intact. Schulz said there’s debate around whether depression causes dementia or if it surfaces as dementia sets in. Either way, the two go hand-in-hand leaving dementia patients in isolation.

One study warned that loneliness is as bad for aging seniors as poor physical health. It can increase a person’s risk of premature death by 14 per cent.

Follow a healthy diet

A healthy diet helps with keeping your weight in check and your heart healthy, but what you eat also feeds your brain.

“The brain directs our heart and all of our organs to do the jobs they’re meant to do and what we’re learning is there are specific foods that are particularly good for brain health,” Schulz said.

So what should you be eating? Look for colour when putting together your meals because those are the ingredients that’ll be packed with anti-oxidants and other nutrients to nourish your brain.

READ MORE: 6 misconceptions about nutrition and healthy eating

Blue and purple fruits and vegetables — blackberries, blueberries, purple cabbage and plums — are a good start. While green, from broccoli, avocados, spinach, and pears, help, too.

Reds, from beets, raspberries, red grapes, tomatoes and red peppers, also make good choices, Schulz said.

Fish is packed with omega-3s, so reach for tuna, salmon and herring to feed your brain.

Stay physically active

You don’t need to run marathons to keep dementia at bay, but doing some form of physical activity goes a long way in keeping your brain young.

Exercise gets your heart rate up, which increases blood flow to the brain, nourishing cells with nutrients and oxygen. It also encourages the development of new cells, all factors in reducing your risk of stroke, Schulz said.

Gym memberships need not apply — walk to the grocery store instead of driving, take the stairs instead of the escalator and get off of the bus two stops ahead on your way home.

Your brain is just like your heart. They’re both muscles that need to be given a workout to stay healthy.

Limit your stress levels

There’s a reason why colouring books and puzzles are making a comeback for adults. These activities are great for destressing and research suggests they’re exactly what busy bodies need to unwind and give their minds a break.

Stress disrupts mood regulation, disrupts our sleep, elevates blood pressure, increases stress hormones like cortisol and increases depression. Too much stress could lead to chemical imbalances that damage the brain and other cells in the body.

Even exercises like meditation help in easing stress.

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‘We will weather this storm’: Leduc searching for answers during tough economic time

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EDMONTON — The City of Leduc and Leduc County met with the local business community Friday to discuss ways to combat the slumping economy.

While last year’s update focused on the City of Edmonton’s proposal to annex a large amount of land south of the city, the focus of this year’s annual update was on the price of oil.

According to the Economic Development Association, between 15 and 30 per cent of the 15,000 workers in Leduc County experienced job loss over the past 18 months.



    Service industry sees increase in resumes as Albertans lose jobs

    4,000 construction workers in Edmonton’s core ‘light in a sea of gloom’ for economy

    18,000 group layoffs reported to Alberta government so far this year

    “The core of our business is in manufacturing,” executive director Barbara Engelbart McKenzie said. “So if we’re seeing layoffs, job closures and business closures in manufacturing, that’s affecting real estate, that’s affecting hotels, that’s affecting the airport and restaurants.”

    The slow down has forced 300 companies to vacate buildings, downsize or shut down in Nisku in the last year.

    To combat low oil prices, the association recommends business owners look at exporting their services, or shifting to alternative technologies, like renewables.

    Leduc Mayor Greg Krischke spoke about the importance of spending cautiously while balancing the needs of a growing community.

    Mayor of @CityofLeduc says “we will weather this storm, and we’ll do it together.” #yeg #ab pic.twitter苏州美甲纹绣培训/zMbx2GdVSw

    — Sarah Kraus Global (@SarahNKraus) March 4, 2016

    “Things are tight right now, we realize that.” @CityofLeduc mayor says it’s up to community to determine how to rise above economic woes.

    — Sarah Kraus Global (@SarahNKraus) March 4, 2016

    Krischke warned those in attendance: “It’s going to get worse before it gets better,” but added that proactive work will reduce the negative impact.

    “There are a lot of people that are losing their jobs right now and because they are, and they’re starting to run out of benefits, food bank usage is up, domestic violence is up, all of those types of things that happen when there’s stressors in a family.”

    READ MORE: Alberta’s economic downturn putting pressure on groups that help people in need

    He added the city is committed to finding money internally to support those in need and will not shift that burden on to taxpayers.

    “Talk to us as a community,” Krischke said, “talk to your banks, talk to the areas you need to talk to because that’s how we’re going to get through it, by working together.”

    “We’re in a little bit of a dip right now, but we’ll get through it, as we have many times in the past.” @LeducCounty mayor @GlobalEdmonton

    — Sarah Kraus Global (@SarahNKraus) March 4, 2016

    The county is attempting to take advantage of lower construction costs to push essential projects forward.

    Mayor @CityofLeduc says Leduc, @LeducCounty and @FlyEIA want to collaborate on fire and emergency services. Cost cut pic.twitter苏州美甲纹绣培训/pqDQbzy7qs

    — Sarah Kraus Global (@SarahNKraus) March 4, 2016

    “2016, it’s going to be tough, there’s no two ways about it. 2017, we’re hoping it’s going to be a light on the horizon for things to get better,” Leduc County Mayor John Whaley said.

    With files from Sarah Kraus, Global News. 

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Canadian biomedical researcher first to share lab notes in real time

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Rachel Harding is putting it all out there.

Harding, a biomedical researcher in the University of Toronto’s faculty of medicine, is the first to blog and share her data, notes and experiments in real-time. Her motivation is simple — she hopes her approach will lead to faster discoveries in a devastating fatal genetic disorder.

“It’s going to be very honest and very raw, not like a polished documents or presentation at all,” Harding told Global News.


Harding is searching for clues in Huntington’s disease, a neurodegenerative genetic disease, that causes nerve cells in the brain to malfunction and die. There is no cure for Huntington’s disease — just a cruel deterioration.

“It’s pretty much equivalent to having Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s at the same time,” Harding said, “There’s nothing out there to really help these people.”

READ MORE: More than half of woman’s family dead from Huntington’s disease

Scientific research is a competitive field. Some researchers guard information — pressure for funding, prestige or contractual agreements — can keep research behind closed doors.

“Around the world you have pockets of researchers hungrily and busily working away on the answers but they don’t share their data,” Aled Edwards, a medical biophysics professor at U of T, told Global News. “That is a tremendously bad idea. Especially if one of the discoveries would have led to some treatment or cure.”

Researcher Rachel Harding hopes by posting her lab notes in real time, it will speed research into Huntington’s disease.

University of Toronto

On her blog, Lab Scribbles, in social media, and on Zenodo, Harding hopes sharing will speed up the research — she’s looking for questions, criticisms, and she hopes to hear from other researchers.

“I am opening myself up to critique from researchers all over the world so we are hoping this will inform better experiments, so we can get to these answers more quickly.,” Harding said.

In order for Rachel to be so public, her university and the foundation that funds the research had to agree – which they did. Both believing in open access research.

Edwards is the director of U of T’s Structural Genomic Consortium (SGC) where Harding is a post-doctoral fellow. He calls her move daring and brave.

“If you look at the landscape at how the world’s research works and how we are not discovering medicines quickly enough, this makes business sense, social sense and logical sense.”

The days of research being hidden is changing, in some scientific disciplines there is a recent practice of open access and sharing.

But not everyone is convinced data sharing is the way to go. In an editorial that appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine in January, the authors raise a list of concerns including one that research could be stolen and the data misinterpreted or misunderstood.

“There is concern among some front-line researchers that the system will be taken over by what some researchers have characterized as ‘research parasites’,” the authors write.

As for Harding, her approach of posting raw information in real time is reflective of her own desire to learn and the quest to better understand Huntington’s.

“I hope to show people, you can do really good science and you can make it be completely open and you can be successful doing it.”

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Community rallies behind 82-year-old faced with eviction

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MONTREAL – Pierino Di Tonno, 82, is an internationally recognized photographer, who has travelled the world to take photos.

Di Tonno is a internationally recognized photographer and his apartment holds hundreds of historical photos. pic.twitter苏州美甲纹绣培训/lvjeRRvaDN

— Felicia Parrillo (@feliciaparrillo) March 5, 2016

For nearly 40 years he’s lived in a Saint-Laurent boulevard apartment, above the Milano grocery store.

Recently, health problems landed him in the hospital for a few months, and when he returned, he was greeted with an eviction notice.

“The moment I came here, I opened the door and it was not possible because they changed the locks,” he said.

Di Tonno told Global News he’ll be contesting the eviction with Quebec’s rental board and a housing rights group in the borough will be helping him.

Le Comité logement de la Petite-Patrie is helping Di Tonno contest his eviction. They say the eviction of seniors happen too often.

— Felicia Parrillo (@feliciaparrillo) March 5, 2016

“We have lots and lots of elderly tenants who are being evicted of their apartment, just because the owners want a little bit of money, just because they want to do a few dollars more per month,” said Martin Blanchard, from La Petite Patrie housing committee. “It is not acceptable.”

The group said the owners of Milano, who also own Di Tonno’s property, want to subdivide the apartment.

Di Tonno’s apartment is located above Milano’s grocery store. Group says its the same owners. pic.twitter苏州美甲纹绣培训/Bnu01prjEb

— Felicia Parrillo (@feliciaparrillo) March 5, 2016

So Saturday morning, the group organized a protest in front of the Little Italy grocery store, to pressure the owners to reconsider the eviction.

Group called on the community to boycott the popular grocery store so they reconsider the eviction. pic.twitter苏州美甲纹绣培训/Vpf5ymkf2l

— Felicia Parrillo (@feliciaparrillo) March 5, 2016


“He’s 82-years-old,” said Blanchard. “It’s a tragedy for him to be evicted from his apartment. So we ask the population to boycott the Milano Grocery, until they understand that it is not acceptable to do such a thing.”

According to the housing group, one third of those evicted in the borough are 65-years and older.

They’re also urging the provincial government to adopt legislation that would better protect seniors who rent.

“Every month or two months we meet with them to explain the project,” he said. “We’re fed up of explaining this project we want it to be voted and adopted at the National Assembly.”

Global News reached out to the building owners for comment, but they have not responded.

Di Tonno’s case goes before the Quebec rental board on March 8.

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Volunteer football coach named Edmonton’s top cop of 2015

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EDMONTON — A member of the the Edmonton police bomb squad who has been a volunteer high school football coach for over two decades has been named the city’s top cop for 2015.

The Kiwanis Club of Edmonton – Oil Capital annual honour recognizing an outstanding Edmonton police officer for their volunteer contributions.


The Kiwanis Club said it selected Sgt. Grant Jongejan because he has “been a dedicated and committed volunteer for over 20 years within the Edmonton community, work that is over and above his duties as a police officer.”

The force said Jongejan is an inspiration to other members. “In addition to taking on the duties of a high school football coach, Grant actively recruits other EPS members to volunteer their time,” said Acting Staff Sgt. Steven Maertens-Poole, who nominated Jongejan.

“His leadership and enthusiasm resulted in a total of five EPS members having a positive impact on hundreds of student athletes over the past two decades.”

Jongejan coached high school football for 20 years with St. Francis Xavier High School, and most recently at Ross Shepherd High School.

“Grant is rare, and our community is so blessed with his service,” said Lee Burke, a teacher and former football coach at St. Francis Xavier who is also a friend of Jongejan.

“This is a humble person who never seeks to receive accolades, which he so richly deserves. I am so very proud to call him a friend.”

Jongejan joined the Edmonton Police Service in 1995. He is a sergeant with the Tactical Section’s bomb squad and the current president of the Canadian Explosive Technician’s Association. He has also been a guest instructor at the Canadian Police College in Ottawa.

Jongejan graduated from the University of Alberta with a Bachelor’s of Physical Education in 1993. He also has a Master’s of Science in Emergency and Disaster Management from Capella University.

Former Edmonton Eskimo Rob Brown was named the city’s top cop for 2014, and was chosen for saving the Eastglen High School Blue Devils football team from the brink of extinction.

READ MORE: Former Eskimo named Edmonton’s Top Cop

The Kiwanis Club of Edmonton – Oil Capital has been handing out the award to Edmonton police officers for 40 years.

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Missing 3-year-old boy in Toronto found safe

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A young boy who went missing in downtown Toronto Friday evening has been found.

The child has been located!!! He is fine!!! Thank you for all of your help and retweets!!.^adc 🙂

— Toronto Police OPS (@TPSOperations) March 5, 2016

Jaitra Pakala, 3, was separated from his mother while getting on an elevator at 25 Telegram Mews at 6:20 p.m. in the area of Spadina Avenue and Fort York Boulevard.

A large search with more than 100 officers plus the canine unit looked for the boy who had been missing for over four hours.

We r lookng for a Missng 3 yr old. Spadina/Front area. We r concernd for his safety. ANY info pls cl 4168081400^adc pic.twitter苏州美甲纹绣培训/Jf7p6WfkKC

— Toronto Police OPS (@TPSOperations) March 5, 2016

3 yr old Jaitra Pakala ws separated frm his mother getting on the elevator at 6:20pm this evenng. Several units r now OS searchng 4 him.^adc

— Toronto Police OPS (@TPSOperations) March 5, 2016

Thank u your concern and RTs. Several units frm the various divsions citywide, including K9 are still searching. We will keep u updated.^adc

— Toronto Police OPS (@TPSOperations) March 5, 2016

Police thanked the public in a tweet posted just after 10:45 p.m.

Thank you! 3yr old boy~Jaitra Pakala~who became separated from his parents in apt bldg Spadina Av/Front St Toronto is safely located ^sm

— Toronto Police (@TorontoPolice) March 5, 2016

It was not immediately clear where the boy was found.

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‘Baby fight club’: Day care teacher convicted of child cruelty

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MANASSAS, Va. —; A second day care teacher was convicted of child cruelty and other counts Thursday for abusive behavior – including stepping on toes and feeding kids Flamin’ Hot Cheetos – toward a classroom of 2-year-olds that a prosecutor described as a “baby fight club.”


Kierra Spriggs, 26, of Woodbridge, was convicted on four counts of felony child cruelty and two misdemeanor counts of assault and battery after a two-week jury trial in Prince William County. The jury acquitted Spriggs on 14 counts, and the judge threw out three misdemeanor convictions for contributing to the delinquency of a minor because he said prosecutors failed to introduce evidence that Spriggs was over the age of 18, a necessary element of that crime.

Later Thursday, a jury recommended jail sentences of three to 12 months on the various counts, adding up to a potential sentence of nearly three years when Spriggs is sentenced in May.

‘Baby fight club’ inflicts suffering

Spriggs is the second teacher convicted. Sarah Jordan was previously found guilty on similar charges and will also be sentenced in May. At Jordan’s trial, prosecutor Ashleigh Landers likened the day care class to a “baby fight club” inflicting suffering for the teachers’ amusement.

In 2013, when the mistreatment took place, Spriggs and Jordan were teachers at what was called the “monkey room” of Minnieland Academy at the Glen, a room that had nearly 20 toddlers ranging in age from about 18 months to 27 months.

Two other teachers in the classroom testified that Spriggs systemically mistreated the toddlers, including encouraging twin sisters to fight each other. One teacher testified that Spriggs fed a Flamin’ Hot Cheeto to a toddler, leaving the girl gasping for air.

Child Abuse Victims | HealthGrove

The teachers also said Spriggs stepped on kids’ toes and laughed, and put rubber bands on their hands and snapped them, making the toddlers cry.

Parents of the toddlers testified that their children started becoming fearful of the monkey room. Many started acting out, and several parents described how their toddlers suddenly started stepping on others’ toes and laughing.

“That’s not terrible twos. That’s mimicking,” prosecutor Ashleigh Landers told the jury.

Spriggs did not take the stand in her own defense. Her defense lawyer suggested the teachers may have been motivated to testify against Spriggs because of a workplace dispute.

Flamin’ Hot Cheeto equal child abuse?

The defense lawyer, Patrick Foltz, also questioned whether eating a Flamin’ Hot Cheeto could be equated to abusive behavior and said prosecutors failed to make that case because they didn’t introduce any evidence of the snack food’s relative spiciness.

“Is it felony torture if nobody’s told you a Flamin’ Hot Cheeto is hot? How hot is it? You don’t know,” Foltz told the jury in closing arguments.

READ MORE: Nearly half of Canadian military personnel exposed to child abuse before joining

The Woodbridge facility is one of 50 day care centers operated by Minnieland and happens to be immediately adjacent to Minnieland’s corporate headquarters.

Teachers in the monkey room testified that they alerted their supervisors to the problems there but nothing was done. Eventually a teacher called state welfare agents, who conducted an investigation.

After the conviction, several parents testified at the trial’s sentencing phase about the effect of the abuse. Parent Brittany Hess looked at Spriggs and called her a “monster,” fighting back tears.

Parents expressed frustration that they still don’t believe they know all of the abuse their children may have suffered, because their children were too young to articulate it.

“I don’t know the full extent of what happened in the monkey room, but I know it changed her,” Traci Helmick said of her daughter.

James J. McCoart III, a lawyer representing some of the victimized families, said the families will be filing civil lawsuits against Minnieland “for the ongoing abuse committed upon their children.”

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SpaceX launches satellite, but fails to land rocket on barge

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CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – SpaceX has another launch under its belt, but not another rocket landing.

The unmanned Falcon 9 rocket blasted off at sunset Friday, carrying a broadcasting satellite for Luxembourg-based company SES. It was the fifth launch attempt over the past 1 1/2 weeks; Sunday’s try ended with an engine shutdown a split second before liftoff.

As it has tried before, SpaceX attempted to land the discarded first-stage booster. The target was a barge in the Atlantic, 400 miles offshore. Right before touchdown 10 minutes into the flight, the TV camera on the platform cut out, drawing loud groans from the crowd gathered at company headquarters in Hawthorne, California.

READ MORE: SpaceX aborts launch seconds before liftoff


More than a half-hour later, the private company indicated the test was unsuccessful.

SpaceX never expected the test to succeed given the hefty, high-flying payload. This mission required that the booster fly much faster than usual and therefore burn up more fuel, leaving less for a precision touchdown. SpaceX scored a rocket landing on the ground at Cape Canaveral in December, but has yet to nail a trickier floating barge landing.

There were plenty of cheers, though, as the second-stage successfully lifted the satellite higher and higher, and even more when the satellite separated successfully in full camera view.

READ MORE: MIT wins design competition for Elon Musk’s Hyperloop

Company chief Elon Musk reported the target altitude of 40,600 kilometres – more than 25,000 miles – was achieved. “Thanks @SES-Satellites for riding on Falcon 9! Looking forward to future missions,” he tweeted.

Target altitude of 40,600 km achieved. Thanks @SES_Satellites for riding on Falcon 9! Looking forward to future missions.

— Elon Musk (@elonmusk) March 5, 2016

Musk wants to retrieve and refly boosters to save time and money. Usually, the boosters just fall into the sea. SES chief technology officer Martin Halliwell said last week that his company would have “no problem” launching a satellite on a recycled SpaceX rocket.

SpaceX is working to recover from a launch accident last summer shortly after liftoff. It hopes to resume space station deliveries for NASA in the next month or so.

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Public workers reject deal with Quebec

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QUEBEC CITY – Quebec has issued an ultimatum to public workers holding out on a collective agreement.

The FSSS-CSN represents over 110,000 public workers in health care and social services. It has been negotiating with the government since the fall of 2014.

This week, this federation rejected the agreement, saying the deal doesn’t treat all of its members the same and comes up short when inflation is considered.


“Between 2003 and 2015, inflation increased 30 per cent more than our salaries. Now when we look at the agreement on the table, most of our members—probably around 90 per cent—are going to lose once again,” Jeff Begley, FSSS president said.

The FSSS is part of the Common Front. In December, three out of the four federations, or 70 per cent of public sector unions in the province, reached agreements in principal.

The minister in charge of the public union negotiations, Sam Hamad, says the government has done everything possible to reach an agreement. The Treasury Board president declined an interview Friday, but issued a statement, which read in part:

“Last December, the government enhanced its offer. Several meetings took place to attempt to find a middle ground. We have always negotiated in good faith. I invite today the FSSS to display good faith in reconsidering this offer.”

However, the federation is calling for another solution: a third-party negotiator.

“We’re asking for a conciliator to be in this negotiation,” Begley said.

Hamad also issued the same ultimatum to the FAE, Montreal’s largest teacher’s union, giving them until Monday to sign the agreement.

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True or False? Fact checking Trump and other GOP candidates dubious claims

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WASHINGTON —; On taxes, trade and drug prices, viewers of the latest Republican debate didn’t get a straight story. And Donald Trump spun fiction about 9/11.

A look at some of the claims Thursday night and how they compare with the facts:

9/11 Fiction

DONALD TRUMP: Families of the 9/11 hijackers were allowed to leave the U.S. around the time of the attacks, even though “they knew what was happening. The wife knew exactly what was happening. They left two days early … and they watched their husband on television flying into the World Trade Center, flying into the Pentagon.”


READ MORE: Mitt Romney blasts Donald Trump as a ‘fraud’ with ‘worthless’ promises

THE FACTS: No relatives of the hijackers were known to be in the U.S. before or after the attacks.

Trump appears to be confusing relatives of the hijackers with relatives of Osama bin Laden who were in the U.S. at the time. They left the U.S. nine days after the attacks, not two days before.

After bin Laden became the prime suspect in the attacks, Saudi Arabia organized the evacuation of more than 20 members of his family – mostly nieces and nephews – from the United States because some feared reprisals from Americans. The Bush administration came under harsh criticism for the action.

Cruz dodges tax question

Republican presidential candidate, Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, right, reacts as businessman Donald Trump speaks during a Republican presidential primary debate at Fox Theatre, Thursday, March 3, 2016, in Detroit.

AP Photo/Paul Sancya

TED CRUZ on his proposal to abolish the IRS: “Now, at the end of that there will still be an office in the Treasury Department to receive the postcards but it will be dramatically simpler.”

THE FACTS: Cruz dodged the question of how the tax system will be enforced if he abolishes the IRS and has people pay taxes on simple postcard-like forms. No matter how simple taxes might become, the government still has to make sure people are paying their share, and that takes a large workforce. It’s not just a matter of receiving postcards.

Cruz’s flat tax would consolidate seven tax brackets into one at 10 percent. It’s almost certain that this level would give the wealthy huge tax breaks and cause budget deficits to soar.

Trump on pharmaceutical companies

TRUMP: “Because of the fact that the pharmaceutical companies are not mandated to bid properly, they have hundreds of billions of dollars in waste.”

THE FACTS: This relates to Trump’s unachievable promise to save $300 billion by allowing Medicare to negotiate prescription drug prices. That’s impossible because the entire country – Medicare, private insurance, individuals and other government programs – spends about $300 billion on drugs ($297.7 billion in 2014).

RCP Poll Average for Trump vs. Clinton – 2016 General Election | InsideGov

Trump’s promise could only be fulfilled, in essence, if drugs were free.

Savings estimates from Medicare-negotiated drug prices have not been nearly as huge as Trump supposes.

A study last year by the advocacy group Public Citizen and a professor at Carleton University in Ottawa estimated that Medicare’s prescription program would save $15.2 billion to $16 billion a year if it were able to get the same discounted prices for brand name drugs that state Medicaid programs and the Veterans Health Administration receive.

That’s far from a $300 billion savings.

Rubio: Trump ‘inherited over $100 million’

GOP 2016 Debate

(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

MARCO RUBIO dismissed Trump’s business record, saying he “inherited over $100 million.”

THE FACTS: That’s hard to pin down. Trump’s father, Fred Trump, died in 1999, and left behind an estate publicly estimated at between $200 million to $250 million. But no firm numbers are available – and the estate was to be split among Trump and two of his siblings.

If Rubio’s estimate is high, however, Trump’s insistence that he only received a “small loan” from his father is even harder to justify. Fred Trump not only gave his son an initial stake, but also guaranteed loans on the Grand Hyatt project that first made Trump’s name. Fred Trump also let his son borrow against his future inheritance – and, in 1991, one of Trump’s casinos admitted it had broken New Jersey law by accepting an illicit $3.5 million loan from Fred Trump.

Trump takes on China

TRUMP: “We are getting absolutely crushed on trade…. With China we’re going to lose $505 billion in terms of trades. You just can’t do it. Mexico, $58 billion. Japan, probably about, they don’t know it yet, but about $109 billion.”

THE FACTS: Trump is way off on the U.S. merchandise trade deficit with China. It was $365.7 billion in 2015 – indeed, a record and the largest deficit the United States had with any country.

But the U.S. deficit with all countries last year was $531.5 billion, up from $508.3 billion in 2014, close to the $505 billion deficit that Trump assigned just to one country, China. Trump did get the deficit with Mexico correct.

READ MORE: Donald Trump says Romney ‘would have dropped to his knees’ for his endorsement

But not Japan. His estimate of a $109 billion trade deficit with Japan compares with the actual deficit of $68.6 billion last year.

TRUMP: Repeating his advocacy of harsh interrogation of terrorism suspects, “We should go for waterboarding and we should go tougher than waterboarding. That’s my opinion.” Asked what he’d do if the military refuses to go along with the order because it’s against U.S. law, “They don’t refuse. They’re not going to refuse me. Believe me.”

THE FACTS: Members of the military are obligated to refuse to follow an order that is illegal under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. If they follow unlawful ones, they risk punishment.

Cruz: Obamacare is a job killer

CRUZ: Obamacare is “the biggest job killer in America.”

THE FACTS: That evergreen assertion flies in the face of an unemployment rate that has fallen to 4.9 percent from 9.9 percent in March 2010, when President Barack Obama signed the health care law.

The economy has added more than 13.4 million jobs during that period.

While the health care law doesn’t seem to have had a major impact on jobs, some lesser consequences are likely. The Congressional Budget Office projected that the availability of government subsidized health insurance will prompt some people to drop out of the labor market, since they can get coverage without holding down a job.

Trump attacks Hillary

TRUMP: “I beat Hillary Clinton in many polls. The Pew poll just came out. I beat Hillary Clinton in a recent Fox poll, I beat Hillary Clinton in USA Today, I beat her today in a poll in Ohio. I beat – I’m the only one that beats Hillary Clinton.”

THE FACTS: Actually the latest Fox poll finds Clinton besting him, while a USA Today poll has him on top.

In a sea of polling since May – some with sound methodology and others without – Clinton is far more often found to be the likely winner over Trump in a hypothetical matchup. But even scientifically solid polling during the primary season is a poor measure of what’s likely to happen when the two parties have two nominees running against each other in the fall.

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